Strange IndiaStrange India

Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) represent a promising low-cost, thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology, with unprecedented power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) obtained for both single-junction and tandem applications1-8. To push PSCs toward commercialization, it is critical, albeit challenging, to understand device reliability under real-world outdoor conditions where multiple stress factors (e.g., light, heat, humidity) coexist, generating complicated degradation behaviors9-13. It is necessary to identify accelerated indoor testing protocols—which can correlate specific stressors with observed degradation modes in fielded devices—to quickly guide PSC development. Here, we use a state-of-the-art p-i-n PSC stack (with PCE up to ~25.5%) to show that indoor accelerated stability tests can predict our 6-month outdoor aging tests. Device degradation rates under illumination and at elevated temperatures are most instructive for understanding outdoor device reliability. We also find that the indium tin oxide (ITO)/self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based hole transport layer (HTL)/perovskite interface most strongly affects our device operation stability. Improving the ion-blocking properties of the SAM HTL increases averaged device operational stability at 50°C–85°C by a factor of ~2.8, reaching over 1000 h at 85°C and to near 8200 h at 50°C with a projected 20% degradation, which is among the best to date for high-efficiency p-i-n PSCs14-17.

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