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Endothelial cells (ECs) line the blood and lymphatic vasculature, and act as an essential physical barrier, control nutrient transport, facilitate tissue immunosurveillance, and coordinate angiogenesis/ lymphangiogenesis1,2. In the intestine, dietary and microbial cues are particularly important in the regulation of organ homeostasis. However, whether enteric ECs actively sense and integrate such signals is currently unknown. Here, we show that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) acts as a critical node for EC-sensing of dietary metabolites in adult mice and human primary ECs. We first established a comprehensive single-cell endothelial atlas of the mouse small intestine, uncovering the cellular complexity and functional heterogeneity of blood and lymphatic ECs. Analyses of AHR mediated responses at single-cell resolution identified tissue-protective transcriptional signatures and regulatory networks promoting cellular quiescence and vascular normalcy at steady state. Endothelial AHR-deficiency in adult mice resulted in dysregulated inflammatory responses, and the initiation of proliferative pathways. Furthermore, endothelial sensing of dietary AHR ligands was required for optimal protection against enteric infection. In human ECs, AHR signalling promoted quiescence and restrained activation by inflammatory mediators. Together, our data provide a comprehensive dissection of the impact of environmental sensing across the spectrum of enteric endothelia, demonstrating that endothelial AHR signalling integrates dietary cues to maintain tissue homeostasis by promoting EC quiescence and vascular normalcy.

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