Ian Bateman and Andrew Balmford argue that biodiversity-friendly agriculture and ecosystem restoration in European Union countries could pose a threat to biodiversity elsewhere (Nature 618, 671–674; 2023). In our view, it is the rising consumption of unsustainably produced luxury foods, such as meat and goods rich in oil or sugar, that is behind agriculturally driven land-use change outside the EU, rather than nature protection within the EU. Meanwhile, global food insecurity remains unacceptably high.
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The authors declare no competing interests.