Men and the Universe are not separate, the elements which made up the whole universe is also present in the human body.

For growth and function, humans and animals need nutrients, some of these are bio-synthesized, but others have to be obtained from external sources. Among these nutrients, some are “essential” like these need to be taken from the air, water, and food. These include fatty acids, vitamins, and some chemical elements such as calcium, magnesium, zinc, chromium, etc.

These elements are obtained by the body through our food and water, which are directly connected to the soil. So the parent material, which makes the ground is directly or indirectly related to this nutrient.

What is the parent material?

Soil is formed through the weathering of rocks. Rocks are classified into three categories Igneous, Metamorphic and Sedimentary. Igneous rocks are the primary rocks; these rocks are formed from solidified lava.  Lava contains the trace and other essential elements; after the solidification, these rocks are subjected to the actions of rain, wind, temperature, water, collectively the impacts of these agents are called “Weathering.” Which creates the soil.

The presence and absence of elements like Calcium, Sodium, Magnesium, Iron, Selenium, Iodine, etc. influence human health.

Food grows on soil; these elements get into plants or grains from the ground through plant’s roots; if any animal eats the leaves or grasses, these elements go into their bodies, and when humans eat those animals, it goes into their bodies. Water, when flows over the rocks, dissolves these elements and carries them when humans and animals drink that water; these elements/nutrients get into their bodies.

Sixteen elements have been identified as very important and have a significant influence on human health.

Elements and implicated functions:-

Macronutrients:

Calcium — Bone structure, nervous system.

Phosphorus — Membrane structure, bone structure, metabolic regulation.

Magnesium — Bone structure, enzyme catalyst.

Sodium — Acid/Base control, osmotic control of water distribution.

Potassium — Same functions as Sodium.

Chlorine — The same functions as Sodium.

Micronutrients:-

Iron — Oxygen transport.

Copper — Enzyme catalysis.

Zinc — Enzyme Catalysis.

Iodine — Metabolic regulation.

Selenium — Antioxidant, Enzyme Catalysis.

Manganese — Same as Selenium.

Molybdenum — Potentiating of insulin action.

Chromium — Enzyme catalysis.

Fluoride — Protect against dental caries.

Cobalt — Single Carbon metabolism as the active center of the vitamin B12 molecules.

Regions where the concentration of these elements are deficient, the population of those areas are prone to diseases related to the deficiency of these elements.

For example, Goiter, which is caused by low Iodine, establishes a significant relationship between geology and health. Little Iodine also reduces intellectual. 

Selenium is another essential element and has an implication as an antioxidant. Selenium deficiency (due to low in Selenium concentration in soil ), causes severe physiological impairment and organ damage such as juvenile cardiomyopathy (Keshan disease) and muscular abnormalities in adults (Kachin-Beck disease).

In the 1960s, scientists suspected that these diseases were of geological origin. In the 1970s, the probable solution was found. This disease was found to occur in areas with low Selenium soils. The use of Selenium in the prevention and treatment of the conditions was a great success.

So, we can conclude that there is an essential relationship between the geology of an area and common diseases in that area.  The study of this relationship between geology and health is known as Medical geology, which is a re-emerging science. “Re-emerging,” because the relationship between geologic materials such as rocks and minerals and human health has been known for centuries. Ancient Chinese, Egyptian, Islamic, and Greek texts describe many therapeutic applications of various rocks and minerals and many health problems that they may cause.

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